In Uzbekistan, the skull cap is part of the national costume. However, today, this element of the headdress became popular among fashionistas of the capital. Often the skullcap is combined with modern clothes, adding a bright, national detail to its image.
But even several decades ago the skull cap was the main kind of headdress in Central Asia. There were men and women, children and old people in it. And in each region skullcaps have their own difference. Conditionally Duppies are divided into several groups: Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, Fergana, Khorezm-Karakalpak and Kashkadarya-Surkhandarya, and also skullcaps are festive, religious and everyday. These national dresses are made of soft or hard fabric, decorated with embroidery or beads, give a round or square shape.
In men, Duppies have a special respect. Previously, in disputes, men often used the expression "Is there a skull-cap on your head?", Which means "Are you a man or not?". Tyubeteyka can tell a lot about her master. Today, however, not everyone thinks about the messages hidden in the patterns of the Duppies, and every bend, drawing, line - carries a deep meaning and mystery. Until now, the people have preserved whole legends and legends about skullcaps. Four flowers in the upper part of the skullcap, according to legend, protect the health of the man from four sides, and sixteen flowers along the edge of the skullcap express the desire to be a big and friendly family (to have sixteen children), according to the album "Tyubeteiki Uzbekistan of the XIX-XX centuries". This is clearly seen in the example of one of the most common classical skullcaps for men. These Duppies come from the Fergana Valley, but have become popular all over the country. They have a strict, modest and at the same time very decorative look.
For these skullcaps is characterized by a contrasting combination of a white pattern in the form of four pods of peppers "kalampir" with a black background. Embroidered with white silk flowers on a dark background served as an expression of purity of the soul and heart of a man.
However, it can not be unequivocally asserted that this plant is depicted on this headdress. Some researchers see in it echoes of some cosmogonic ideas that have come from the depths of centuries.
When decorating the skullcap, the vegetative nature of the embroideries is predominantly used, the color solution of which was achieved by the coloristic contrast between the floral and foliage parts of the pattern. Represented those plants, which, along with their decorative meaning, possessed some healing power and were used in the treatment of various ailments. Among the floral motifs, roses, iris, carnation, tulip, cockscomb, apple tree, etc. are common, and among the fruits - images of pomegranate, cherry and cherry, almond and pepper, etc.
However, the prototypes of floral forms were transformed every time by the imagination of the craftsmen. Vegetable forms of ornamentation were solved stylized, in a flat manner, generalized. Flowers are depicted from above and from the side. Particularly carefully developed parts inside the flowers.
In the ornament of embroidery there are leaves of several forms: oval, with jagged edges, reminiscent of leaves of lilac; shamrocks and pjatilistniki different outlines, long leaves "herringbone", leaves with prongs on one side.
Vegetative patterns were often animated by images of brightly colored birds. Birds could also make up the basic pattern of the ornamental motif. Basically, these are images of a pheasant, a cock, a nightingale ("bulbul"). Figures of birds are decided brightly, decoratively, they are organic and uniform in their style with ornament.
Among the zoomorphic motifs is used the image of the symbol, for example, the motif of the horns, personifying force, courage, protection. The motif of mutton horns is found as a series of double spirals in the form of edging or in the form of leaves in rows as a fringing finish. Under the pattern with mutton horns, especially its spiral version, the ancient cosmological motif of the spiral, symbolizing the Universe, eternal motion is also assumed.
A widespread in the ornament of skullcaps is the image of a wriggling snake. It can be assumed that the idea of the magical power of the snake was associated with the cult of the snake, which had existed in the past, traces of which can be traced to our days. The snake "Ilon" was attributed to a number of positive functions. She was considered a guardian of the house, family, wealth, livestock, grain, water, treasures, etc. She was revered as the patroness of women and children, especially newborns. The pattern "Ilon izi" (serpent trace), widespread in the embroidery of braid, according to the mythological tradition, also served as the amulet.
On skull-caps embroider and images of a mountain goat, a scorpion, an animal resembling a leopard. Images of animal paws or bird tracks are common. Traces of the animal pointed the way to the water, which means, to life.
The patterned wealth of skullcaps is achieved through color. The following colors and shades were used: "ok" (white), "bark" (black), "och-kuk" (dark blue), "sausan" (purple, literally iris), "bikia" (hot pink) "Zeynobi" (green warm), "tutaki" (green cold, parrot, from "tuti" - parrot), "sariq" (yellow), "pashti" (dark crimson), "shol" (red, literally woolen) .
An integral part of the adornment of the skull-cap is the braid - 'zhiyak', 'jiyak', in some places 'zekh' (Bukhara, Urgut, Samarkand), 'Sheroza' (Surkhandarya). "Zhiyak" usually frames the skullcap and, as it were, protects the owner of evil forces.
The braid is decorated with one or two repetitive motifs. An additional color rhythm is created in a number of cases due to the colorful development of two neighboring motifs.
The skullcap edge is also lined with a narrow strip of black velvet or satin. In this case, the ornament of the skull-cap window is a continuation of the Donets ornament.
Patterns embroidered on the braid with gold and silver thread ("keka zekhi"), pointed to the high social status of the owner of the skullcap or to the sacredness of the event, in connection with which she was put on.
If men often use black satin or velvet when sewing male skullcaps, women's skullcaps are made of silk, velvet, brocade. They can have a high or low border, be finished with a monochrome or multi-colored border from other fabrics, embroidered with silk, beads, as well as crocheting, glass beads, metal plates.
Above the patterns of embroidery worked particularly gifted artists, draftsmen, called "Kalamkash" or "Chezmakash." Patterns were applied directly to the prepared fabric with ink or ink, usually with the help of finely honed kamyshinka "kalam". If the fabric was dark, the pattern was applied with a solution of yellow paint, slightly thickened with sugar or molasses. In addition to sharpened cane, sticks were used, as well as ordinary steel feathers.
When embroidering patterns, local silk of weak spinning was used, which was dyed with the necessary color with natural dyes.
The aspiration of the craftsmen to beauty, to perfection exalted their work from craft to art. In general, historically, the forms of the Duppies emerged from a pointed skullcap, which was worn under a turban. The very word "skullcap" originated from the Tatar "tyute": the tuba is the top, the top. The Uzbek name for these caps is "Duppy" or "Culp". By the XIX century skullcaps as a headdress had become widespread and the variety of their forms was defined - pointed, conical, hemispherical and tetrahedral, round and dome skullcaps.
Thus, all the elements of the design of the Uzbek skullcap - color, line, symbolic ornamental sign - carry an important semantic load, often associated with such universal concepts as life and death, light and darkness, earth and sky, good and evil.
Uzbek skullcaps are deservedly in demand all over the world. Foreign tourists are eager to purchase these hats, as an unusual souvenir, many even decorate their home with them.
Guests of Uzbekistan who want to get acquainted with the history of the skullcaps and see their most unusual specimens have such an opportunity in the state museums of history, arts and applied arts of Uzbekistan.
But you can buy a skull cap for personal use at any bazaar and in special souvenir shops in tourist centers.
We put on skullcaps and look forward to seeing you! Welcome to Uzbekistan!