History of Uzbekistan has more than one millennium. The territory between the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers was inhabited by ancient people in the early Paleolithic. The years passed, centuries, cities grew and civilizations developed, which by right today are considered the most ancient in the East. From time immemorial, heroes and scientists, thinkers and poets appeared - people who created the history of our region and glorified it all over the world.
The full name of Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari is a famous scholar of the hadith. This figure is widely known throughout the Muslim world, he is the author of the collection of hadith Al-Jami al-Salih, or "Credible," which is the second Muslim book after the Koran. The place of his birth is encoded in the name - the future theologian was born in Bukhara in 810.
Historians say that Imam al-Bukhari had a phenomenal memory. As soon as he read the book, he remembered it by heart. It is believed that the theologian collected and recorded about 600 thousand hadiths - legends based on events from life or any dictum of the Prophet. Part of the hadith, the most authentic, entered his book "Al-Salih."
Al-Bukhari is the author of many books that are still venerated throughout the Muslim world. The significance of this figure is noticeable to this day. The mausoleum of Imam al-Bukhari is one of the main places of pilgrimage in Uzbekistan. The theologian was buried in the village of Hartang near Samarkand. Visit to the mausoleum of al-Bukhari, together with Shahi Zinda and Ruhabad for one day, is called a small hajj in Samarkand.
(Memorial complex of Imam al-Bukhari)
"People can not always be alive, but the one who will remember the name is happy."
The author of these lines - Alisher Navoi - as if he wrote about himself, because the memory of him will live forever. The great philosopher and poet was born in 1441 in Herat. The house where Nizamaddin Mir Alisher grew up, later taking the pseudonym of Navoi (melodic), was visited by prominent figures of philosophical thought and art of that time. His father Giyaseddin Kichkina was an official in the Timurid state, from which his son Alisher was brought up together with the children of Timurid families. Strong friendship connected Navoi with the Sultan Hussein Baikara, who later became his patron and like-minded.
Creativity in Alisher Navoi showed up quite early. At the age of 15 he was known as a poet. His poems Navoi wrote equally well, both in the Chagatai language, and in Farsi.
Education Alisher Navoi received in Herat and Samarkand. In 1469 he was appointed to the post of the custodian of the press at the Sultan and his friend Hussein Baikara. Against the backdrop of his political activities, Navoi paid particular attention to creativity. The legacy that he left to his descendants is huge and ambiguous.
Over one of his main works of "Hamsa" ("Pyateritsa"), Navoi worked in 1483-85. The work included five epic poems - "The Confusion of the Righteous" (1483), "Leili and Majnun" (1484), "Farhad and Shirin" (1484), "The Seven Planets" (1484), " The Wall of Iskander "(1485).
Alisher Navoi also left about 30 collections of poems, major poems, compositions and scientific treatises. His work is included in the modern educational system of Uzbekistan. He was imitated by many followers, his work opened a whole poetic direction. Today in Uzbekistan the name of Alisher Navoi is the main National Library, as well as the Bolshoi Opera and Ballet Theater located in the center of Tashkent. One of the metro stations, bearing the name of this great poet, is decorated with a panel from the stories of "Khamsa" and the bas-relief of Navoi itself. The guests of the capital are sure to try to visit these places, which are unique architectural monuments.
The importance of this figure has a special status in Uzbekistan. Amir Temur, who in Europe was known as Tamerlane, is considered a national hero and legend.
The future liberator of Maverannahr from foreign invaders, was born in 1336 in the village of Khoja-Ilgar (modern city of Shakhrisabz). Timur ibn Taragai Barlas (Timur son Taragay of Barlasov) so sounds the full name of the "iron" commander. His name Temur comes from the Turkic language and in translation means "iron." Many historians describe his character as an iron, strong-willed. Amir Temur was brave and brave. In one of the campaigns, he was wounded in the leg, which made him noticeably limp, but this only gave him an awesome appearance. It is known that Temur had a bogatyr physique, his height was 172 cm (it became known after the opening of his tomb), he was much stronger than any of his soldiers and always personally participated in all the campaigns.
By the beginning of the XV century, Temur created one of the greatest empires in history. Samarkand, which Temur made its capital, became the largest and richest city in the East. To protect their lands - from the Volga River and the Caucasian mountain ranges in the West and to India in the Southwest - he created an almost ideal army. During the reign of Amia Temur in Samarkand and other cities, a large-scale construction was carried out, during which monumental buildings were erected, codes of laws were developed, and art developed.
Today, in honor of the great commander in the center of Tashkent is located the square of his name, with a majestic monument - Amir Temur sits on a horse with his arm raised, across the road from him is a museum of Temurids. The monument of Amir Temur is also depicted on an Uzbek banknote with a nominal value of 500 soums, and in 1996 the Amir Temur Order was established.
Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur
February 14 in Uzbekistan is widely celebrated the birthday of Babur - statesman, commander and writer. Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur left a deep mark on the political and literary life of Maverannahr in the 15th and 16th centuries. He was born in 1483 in Andijan to the family of Emir of Ferghana Umar-Sheikh-Mirza II, grandson of the Timurid sultan Miran-shah, the third son of Amir Temur.
Babur came to power early, at the age of 11 he was declared the ruler of Ferghana. However, just 10 years later, in 1504, he was forced to leave his lands and move to Kabul, where he created a new state. Until 1526, he repeatedly tried to regain his land, but without success. During this period, his attention gradually shifted to India, which he won in 1526. This was his last war trophy. In India, he founded the empire of the Baburids or the Great Moguls, which lasted 300 years.
Babur died on December 26, 1530 in Agra, but his remains were transported to Kabul.
Along with the enormous state affairs Babur left behind a very valuable literary heritage. The main work of his life is the autobiography "Babur-nama". The book describes the traditions and customs of people of that era.
Abu Ali Ibn Sina
Abu Ali Ibn Sina is known throughout the world as the founder of modern medicine. His works in this field are appreciated all over the world to this day. He left a significant contribution to science and philosophy. Over 57 years of his life, he wrote more than 450 works in 29 fields of science.
Ibn Sina or Avicenna, as he was called in Europe, was born in 980 in the village of Afshan, near Bukhara. His genius began to manifest at a young age - at 10 years old knew the Koran by heart, and in 20 he began to treat people. His unusual for that time method of treatment allowed you to put on the feet of seriously ill patients, for which he was called "prince of doctors."
The life of Abu Ali Ibn Sina was not smooth and calm - often his prosperous life was followed by wanderings. He was both a court physician and adviser to the rulers, and sometimes he was imprisoned because of a change of power.
His numerous scientific works Avicenna wrote in any conditions, it would be appropriate to say that he simply could not help writing. The knowledge that overwhelmed him flowed to the pages of a thousand pages. Among his most important works are The Book of Knowledge, The Book of Healing, Medicines, The Canon of Medical Science (in 5 books), the latter is considered one of the most famous books in the history of medicine. Along with this, Ibn Sina's pen belongs to poetic collections and theological treatises.
Avicenna died in 1037, leaving behind a huge legacy that his descendants use to this day.
Abu Raikhan Beruni
Beruni is called an encyclopedic scientist, and this is quite true. After himself, he left his work on mathematics, astronomy, physics, botany, geography, general geology, mineralogy, ethnography, history, chronology, etc.
Historians often call the entire first half of the eleventh century "the era of Beruni" in science. It is said that the posthumous list of his works, compiled by the students, occupied 60 finely written pages. Among the main works can be called "The Canon of Mas'ud on astronomy and stars", "Pharmacognosy in medicine", "India, or the Book containing an explanation of the Indian teachings acceptable to reason or rejected", "Science of the stars", etc.
Abu Reyhan Mahammad Ahmad al-Beruniy was born in 973 in the city of Kyat (the capital of Khorezm). He was an orphan. Already a well-known scientist worked at the court of the Khorezm Shah, but later was forced to move to Cabas. Biruni died in the city of Ghazni in 1048.
Today in Uzbekistan there is the city of Beruni, in Tashkent the Abu Rayhan Beruni University. The name of this great scientist, the genius of his time, is universally revered, his works are studied and used in various fields of science.
Al-Fergani - the greatest Central Asian astronomer VIII - IX centuries. The exact date of his birth is not known, scientists roughly call 798. Full name of the scientist Abu-l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Katir al-Fargani. A native of the Fergana Valley was respectfully called Khasib, which means "mathematical", and in Europe he was known as Alfraganus.
His contribution to astronomy, mathematics and geography he made, working in the "House of Wisdom" or the Academy of Al-Mamun (Baghdad). Among the main works - "Book of astronomical movements, and a summary of the science of stars," "Thirty Elements," "Theoretical calculations on the sphere," "Treatise on the time when the moon is under the Earth and above it," etc. Also Ahmad al-Fergani wrote a commentary on the work of Ptolemy's Almagest.
Al-Fergani was one of the first among the scientists of the Middle Ages to prove the sphericity of the Earth, discovered the presence of spots on the Sun, determined June 22 as the longest day of the year and December 23, as the shortest. In Europe, Al-Fergani has been used for several centuries as a teaching aid.
The works of Al-Fergani are valued in the scientific world to this day. So, for example, his invention nilometer - a device that measures the water level in the Nile - is used today.
The founder of the classical algebra Abu Abdullah Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khorezmi was born in Khiva at the end of the VIII century. The exact date of his birth is unknown, but conditionally called 783 year. Also nothing is known about his childhood. In some sources it is called "al-madzhushi", i.e. magus, from which it follows that he came from a clan of Zoroastrian priests who later converted to Islam.
In all the sources of this scientist they call the father of algebra. It can not be said that before it did not exist. Even in ancient times, people solved the simplest algebraic problems, but it was Al-Khorezmi who introduced algebra as an independent science of general methods for solving numerical linear and quadratic equations.
It is worth noting that the very term "algebra" originated from the word "al-dzhairr", that is, from the title of the al-Khwarizmi treatise "Hisab al-dzhabr val-mukabala" ("The method of restoration and opposition"). But the "algorithm" (the general solution of any mathematical problem) came from the very name of the scientist, ie. the algorithm is the distorted name of al-Khwarizmi.
Like many Central Asian scholars, Al-Khwarizmi was invited to the "House of Wisdom" in Baghdad, where the greatest scientists of those years worked.
Al-Khorezmi's scientific heritage amounted to almost twenty books, of which not more than ten were preserved. The most famous are the "Book of Restoration and Contrast" and "Astronomical Tables." Many generations of scientists, both in the East and in the West, used the tables of al-Khwarizmi.
Historians unanimously assert that during the reign of Mirzo Ulugbek Samarkand became one of the most important centers of Middle Ages science. And this is not surprising, because this ruler himself remained in the annals, as a great scientist, mathematician and astronomer. Science in his life played a crucial role, and during the reign of Maverannahr he elevated it to incredible heights.
Mirzo Ulugbek was born in the city of Sultaniya on March 22, 1394. At the age of 15, in 1409, he was appointed governor of Samarkand, and from 1447 he led the Timurid dynasty after the death of his father Shakhrukh, the eldest son of Amir Timur.
Due to his pedigree, Ulugbek had the opportunity to visit the best libraries, observatories of that time from childhood. His love for heavenly bodies manifested itself at a fairly early age. In 1428, he completed the construction of an observatory named after him. There were no analogues of this observatory in the world. It could work outstanding astronomers, who, like Mirzo Ulugbek himself, made a huge contribution to the development of this science.
The preserved underground part of Ulugbek Observatory is one of the most popular tourist sites among tourists. Everyone wants to see how people in those early years made discoveries that are still valued. It was in this observatory that the great Ulugbek made a catalog of the star sky - Gurgan Zij - in which 1018 stars were described. Here, the length of the stellar year was determined: 365 days, 6 hours, 10 minutes, 8 seconds (with an error of + 58 seconds).
(The preserved underground part of the observatory)
All his astronomical observations Ulugbek recorded in the "New Guragan Astronomical Table", which are considered his main scientific work. Until the XVII century. the accuracy of these tables exceeded all available data in this area.
Also in 1417-1420 on the order of Ulugbek in Samarkand was built madrasah, which was the first building in the future architectural ensemble Registan.
Ulugbek was killed in October 1449.