FAMOUS WRITERS AND POETS
In the second part of the 14-th century a cultural life of Central Asia was concentrated around the cities of Great and Samarkand. One of the known poets of that time an author of a work “Epistles of Love” (Muhabbatname) writing under the pseudonym Horezmi, became. The work consists of 11 letters, 8 of which were written at an old Uzbek language, and 3 – at Farsi. A poem glorifies an exalted love, gladness of life, feelings and emotions of a human being. Horezmi promoted developing secular literature and introduced to poesy a new genre – name (epistle).
ALISHER NAVOI (1441-1501 years)
Works of outstanding poet and thinker of Middle Ages Alisher Navoi marked a whole epoch in Uzbek literature and became a peak of artistic thought of that time. A poet, an expert in literature, a historian, a linguist and a state personality, Alisher Navoi tended to reflect a life deeply and totally and in all its varieties. His literary heritage is big and consists of 30 volumes of rhymes, poems, prosaic works and scientific treaties. His lyrical rhymes (gazel) are combined in “Storehouse of Thoughts”. A peak of his poesy is “Hamsa” (Pyateritsa), where poems “Confusion of Rightiouses”, “Leili and Medjnun”, “Farhad and Shirin”, “Seven Planets”, and “A billow of Iskander’ are. Navoi also wrote an allegoric poem “Language of Birds”. As a lyrical poet, Navoi was brought up at the traditions of Persian poesy and he showed the richest poetic possibilities of classic forms – gazel. The topic of love is a leading one in his poesy.
To love – it means to have attitude to reality with a pure heart, to love everything really beautiful and enjoy it.
MUHAMMAD SALIH (1455-1535)
Genealogy of a poet and historian Muhammad Salih dates from Turkic clan of bilkuts. His grandfather emir Shahmalik was close to Amir Temur and Mirza Ulugbek. His father served for Ulugbek and Mirza Abusaid and occupied a position of a ruler of Horezm. In Gerat he got an education, became mature and served for sultan Husein Baikar, then for sheikh Muhammad – tarhan in Samarkand and then he came to serve for Sheibanihan. In his book “Sheibaniname” he described historical events of 1485 – 1506 years. Though his style does not differ with high artistic merit, the work “Sheibaniname” occupies a special place in a history of Uzbek literature. Further creation of historical chronicles in rhymes got an important development.
BABARAHIM MASHRAB (1640-1711 years)
Babarahim Mashrab is a great poet, who castigated cruel bais and religious fanatics in his works. An author of ardent gazels, Babarahim Mashrab was born in Namangan in a family of bozchi (weaver, producer of cotton fabric). His father has gone when he was a child. He studied by mullah Bazar – ahuna. Smart and bright boy studied Islam with diligence, he was interested in the works of Lutfi and Navoi. In 1665 year he left for Kashgar, however he did not serve during long time for the sheikh Afakhodji and returned back to his native city. Then his mother died and his life became a life of pilgrim. Because of slanders of religious fanatics in 1711 a ruler of Kunduz condemned him to mortal execution. Mashrab was really a folk poet and a friend of poor men and he said: “I saw people with tormented soul. I saw oppressed people”. The rhymes of Mashrab became known in Central Asia and abroad.
MUNIS (1778-1829 years)
Munis is a famous poet, historian and translator. His real name was Shermuhammad Avazbiy. He was born in Horezm. Munis was well educated man and was differed with deep knowledge in the sphere of literature and history. Munis wrote a wonderful book “Paradisiacal Garden”, where he gave a memorable description of the history of Horezm from ancient times till 1812 year. Munis also is known by his excellent rhymes and translations. He translated to Uzbek language the first volume of the famous historical work “Garden of Cleanness Concerning Life of prophets, tsars and caliphs”.
NADIRA (1792-1842 years)
Nadira is a great Uzbek poetess. Her real name is Mahlaraim. She was born in Andijan in an educated family. She was executed after capture of Kokand according to an order of emir of Bukhara Nasrulla. Rhymes of Nadira were saved in 2 manuscript divanas (collections). Her works are characterized with the motifs of faithfulness and fidelity, belief in well and justice. On her opinion, spiritual richness of personality is in ability to love faithfully and devotedly. The poetess sees in this the purpose and happiness of a human being. Her rhymes, written in Uzbek and Persian languages became the classics of Uzbek literature.
MUKIMI (1850-1903 years)
Mukimi is a famous lyrical and satirical poet. His real name is Muhammad Aminhodja Mirsahodja – ogly. He was born in Kokand in a family of baker. Mukimi left a rich heritage, which is combined with fascinating rhymes, comic dedications and muhammases that give real enjoyment. Civil feelings and patriotism of the rhymes of Mukimi, lucidity and simplicity of forms made him a folk poet.
FERUZ (1844-1910 years)
Feruz is one of the greatest Uzbek poets. His real name is Muhammad Rahimhan. He had deep knowledge in the sphere of fikh (jurisprudence), history, and literature. He was a ruler of the khanate of Khiva from 1863 till 1910. Feruz patronized to scientists and poets. According to his initiative works of outstanding Persian and Arabic men of science and art were translated to Uzbek language. Thanks to his efforts a printing – house was built in Khiva. Rhymes of Feruz were combined in the books “Gazels of Feruz”, “Beits of Feruz” and “Collection of Rhymes of Feruz”.
OGAHI (1809-1874 years)
Ogahi is a pseudonym of Muhammadrizo Erniezbek - ugli, Uzbek poet, historian and translator. He studied in madrasah and became proficient in Arabic, Persian, Turkic languages. He was under meaningful influence of progressive men of letters, who were in the encirclement of his uncle – poet Munis Horazmi. Poetic works of the poet are combined in his collection (divana) “Taviz ul - oshikin” (“Amulet of Lovers”). The main place in divana are given to muhammases (rhyme strophes consisting of five – line stanzas). Ogahi devoted his muhammases to Alisher Navoi, Fuzuli, Saadi, Bedil, Munis and others. He is known in Uzbek literature as a poet, who introduced important contribution to development of lyrical genres. He left big heritage as a historian, as: “Riyoz ud - davla” (1844), "Zubdat ut - tavorih” (1846), “Jome ul – vakeati Sultoniy” (1857), “Gulshani davlat” (1865), “Ikboliy Feruziy” (1872).
BERDAH (1827-1900 years)
Berdah – is a pseudonym of Berdimurod Kargabai – ugli. He was a poet and a founder of Karakalpak literature. He got elementary education in school, and then he studied in madrasah. He knew a history and verbal folk creativity very well. In his works Berdah showed a life of Karakalpak people in the 19-th century. His work “Avlodlar” (“Descendants”) was devoted to historical events. His creativity is multifaceted. He dreamed about happy life for people, glorified its hopes and expectations.
HAMZA (1889-1929 years)
Hamza Hakimzade Niezi – is the first folk poet of Uzbekistan (1926), public personality. At first he got his education at madrasah (1899 – 1906) and then in Russian - indigenous school (1908). Being under influence of Tashkent djadids (enlightener) he opened a number of schools of new method of teaching at first in Tashkent, and later on in the cities of Ferghana Valley. He also developed educational books for them. His early rhymes written in accordance with Uzbek classical poesy were combined in a manuscript collection (1914). Being a bright representative of djadid literature, Hamza in 1914 – 1915 years wrote a number of dramatic (“Poisoned Life” and others) and prosaic (“New Happiness” and others) works where skillfully reflected enlightening ideas of djadids. After the Great October Revolution he founded Regional Movable Muslim Theatrical Group and he himself was a director and an actor. He is an author of many plays, and the most popular among them are such dramas as “Bai and farm labourer”, “Tricks of Maisara”, “Secrets of yashmak” and others.
ABDULLA KADYRI (1894-1939 years)
Abdulla Kadyri (Djulkunbai) is a famous Uzbek writer, journalist and a talented translator. He was born in Tashkent, in a family of peasant - gardener. He had to work beginning from his childhood and he served as a clerk for a merchant. In 1915 his first work - a play “Unhappy Fiancé” was published, and in 1916 – a story “Profigate”. In 1924 he studied in Moscow Literary Institute. Kadyri introduced a big contribution to development of a genre of realist novel and genre of satire. He became popular because of his novels “Past Days” (published in 1922) and “Scorpion from Altar” (1929). In 1938 he was subjected to repression.
CHULPAN (1898-1938 years)
Outstanding poet, writer and a translator, Chulpan was born in Andijan in a family of a rich merchant. His real name is Abdulhamid Sulaimankul - ogly. He knew several languages – Arabic, Persian, Russian and Turkic. He was known not only in Uzbekistan, but abroad as well. Chulpan glorified a feeling of love to Motherland, ideas of fight for national independence and so he became a singer of freedom and happiness of people. His novel “Night and Day” and drama “Yorkinoi” were succeeded. He translated works of outstanding Russian writers and “Hamlet” of Shakespeare to Uzbek language. In 1938 he was subjected to repression.
GAFUR GULYAM (1903-1966 years)
Gafur Gulyam was born in 1903 in a poor family. In 1923 his first rhymes were published. In the beginning of 1920-th years he started up dealing with journalist and other literary work. He became popular and got love of people with his story “Mischievous Child”, a collection of rhymes “I Go from East”, and a collection “Result”. One of the most popular rhyme of Gafur Gulyam is “You are not an orphan”. The title of the rhyme itself in the years of the war of 1941 – 1945 became a proverb and is devoted to a heroic epopee of saving thousands and thousands orphans of the war by people of Uzbekistan. During a life of the poet about 30 books at Uzbek language and about 20 books translated to Russian language were published.
AIBEK (1905-1968 years)
Aibek (Musa Tashmuhammedov) was born in Tashkent in 1905. His first rhymes were published in 1923. The first poetic collection of Aibek “Feeling” was published in 1926, the second one “Flutes of Heart” in 1929, and the third one “Torch” in 1932. In 1930 Aibek graduated from the Central Asian State University (Economic Department) and he was a professor there during some time. Then he totally devoted himself to a literary and translating work. He translated to Uzbek language a novel in verse “Eugene Onegin” of A. S. Pushkin. Aibek became well known thanks to his novels “Sacred Blood” and “Navoi”. Some of his works were published by special issues, as poems “Dilbar is a daughter of epoch” (1932), “Bahtygul and Sagyndyk” (1934), “Navoi” (1937), “Girls” (1947), “Hamza”, “Zafar and Zahra” (1952), “My grandfather” (1957), “Guli and Navoi” (1968) and others. All works of academician Aibek is published in his Complete Collection of Works in 20 volumes.
HAMID ALIMDJAN (1909-1944 years)
Hamid Alimdjan was born in 1904. The first collection of rhymes of H. Alimdjan “Spring” was published in 1929. The collection “Fiery Hair” was published in 1931 and in 1932 the collections “Competition” and “Death for Enemy”. Later on poetic books in Uzbek language were published. They are: “Evening at the river” (1936), “Motherland” (1939), “Aigul and Bahtiyar”, “Happiness” (1940), “Semurg or Parizad and Bunyad”, “Zainab and Aman” (1941), “Mother and son”, and “Take weapon to your hands” (1942). He also wrote plays “Mukanna” (1943), “Crime” (1943) and a number of literary works. He perished tragically in 1944.