THE OLD NICOLAS BRIDHE OF KARSHI
There are many unique structures preserved in Central Asia. Among them, on the right takes its place an amazing bridge, built in the 16th century from burnt bricks across the Kashkadarya River. The length of the bridge is 122 meters. If we add a width of more than 8 meters and a height of almost 5 and a half, we see a magnificent construction of the past.
The hulk of the bridge rests on twelve powerful pillars, which are connected by fourteen low and wide arches. The most powerful cylindrical buttresses are located between the arches.
The bridle of the bridge rests on twelve powerful foundations, which are connected in between. When Kashkadarya expanded its channel, the bridge was reconstructed. Reconstruction was carried out in 1914. The structure changed its appearance. To extend it, they erected additional foundations on both sides. In addition, two guard pavilions of burnt bricks at the entrances were built.
But later, in 1960, they were dismantled so that the wide cargo transport could pass. The ancient stone covering of the bridge was asphalted, and the sides of the pedestrian paths were protected by a metal grate. But in such a form, changed to a modern day, the bridge still remains majestic and monumental.
THE OLD SARDOBA HAUZ
Since ancient times, the territory of the Kashkadarya region did not give people the abundance of rain and water. You can find real desert in some places here, where an inexperienced traveler can die of thirst and under the scorching sun. Therefore, since ancient times, people have drilled deep wells throughout the arid region, and caravans walked on the way from the oasis to the oasis, and not directly. To ensure that the water does not evaporate and is not contaminated, such cupolas were built above such wells.
Such a dome protected precious water. After all, water is more expensive than gold in the desert. Even now, on modern maps, there are places where wells are located. Tourists often come to such places.
Other sardoba had a complex irrigation system; the water was delivered to the right waterless place. Sardoba were different in size and device paths. So, in some there were even huge tanksy, water from which went to other sardobas throughout the desert. One can simply marvel at the skill of ancient scientists who, in such terrible weather conditions, built underwater and ground "waterways".
Some were designed for thawed and rainwater. At their construction, places in the middle of flat-bottomed flat depressions with a vast catchment area were chosen. Others received running water through canals, taken from riverbeds or large main irrigation ditches, sometimes from karises, in places with high groundwater levels. In case of unfavorable natural conditions, water-guiding dams or artificial channels were built for the water catchment area. So, there are several long (1-4 km) and narrow water-leading strips-arches with slightly cracked takyr-like surface and traces from the ketman approaches to the Yusuf-sardoba in Karshi. Sometimes one catchment was used by two or more sardobas standing next to each other (like Abdullakhan Sardoba). Among the paired sardobas - Kosh-sardoba and Buzachi sardoba are allocated.
The basic building material for sardoba in Uzbekistan was a flat square burnt brick of high firing quality and strength. Sometimes a stone was laid in the foundation. Among the ruins of the ancient cities of Central Asia there are bathing "ice shelters", made from raw bricks, some of which are also sardobas.
That's what travelers write about such structures. Thus, A. Burns, who passed here in the middle of the XIX century, mentions that after the Karaulbazar (Karaulsaray) in the steppe of Urtachul he passed three large ancient reservoirs - sardobas. There are three sardobas on the way to the village of Khodja Mubarek, and in the village itself, there is a pond, and water came from the Kashkadarya river. In the 40’s of the same century, on the road from Karshi through the village of Pidan, N. Khanykov noted the ruins of a cistern named Buzurg-sardoba, which, judging by the attached map, corresponds to the Ashuk sardoba. The following points along the road to Bukhara were the ruins of caravanserais: Khodja Mubarak, Kakyr, Buzachi, Karaul and Kakan settlement. In 1881, according to G Arandarenko, only two sardobas operated - Kakyr and Karaulbazar, and the intermediate ones were abandoned.