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Language

Uzbek language (O‘zbek tili) is a Turkic language, the official language of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

According to various estimates there are up to 25 million of Uzbek language carriers in the world, most of them living in Uzbekistan and consists of ethnic Uzbeks. Besides that, Uzbek language is common in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region of China. Dialectical, that allows to attribute it to the different subgroups. Grammatically and lexically Uighur and Turkic languages of Karluk (Chagatai) group are closest relatives of modern literary Uzbek language.

Formation of the literary old Uzbek (Chagatai) language based on Karluk-Uyghur dialects of Mawarannahr (Transoxiana), which became an official in the State of Tamerlane. It refers to the XIV-XV centuries. The modern literary Uzbek language was formed on the basis of the Fergana-Tashkent group dialects. Writing in the Uzbek language existed on the Arabic basis until 1930. In the years of 1930-1939 it was on the basis of the Latin and in 1939th the Cyrillic alphabet with some additional letters started to be used. In 1993, the Uzbek language was officially transferred into the Latin alphabet. In 2015 due to a number of reasons, one of them can be identified as conservatism and a habit of the older generation, Cyrillic sometimes still used for the transcription of the Uzbek language and publication of the printed materials. Thus, the two graphics systems are co-exists in parallel, which causes a number of difficulties for youth, such as the inaccessibility of information from books and other sources published prior to the reform of graphics (all new educational literature published in the Latin alphabet).

In the past 20 years, after Uzbekistan gained independence, there have been tendencies to the language purification, cleanse it from the borrowings from other languages, to the active replacement of those borrowings from Turkish and old Uzbek languages. In Uzbek schools all general subjects are taught in it; expanding its use in the higher schools; in Russian schools Uzbek language is learned as a foreign language.